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英语中英译汉技巧

以下浅谈英译汉的几点技巧。

第一,翻译时注意英文的句型,英文的句型一般来说有相应的中文译法。如It的句型的翻译:

(1)It is+名词十从句:

It is a fact that…事实是……

It is a question that………是个问题

It is good news that………是好消息

it is common knowledge………是常识

(2) It is+过去分词十从句:

It is said that…据说……

It must be pointed out that…必须指出……

It is asserted that…有人主张……

It is supposed that…据推测……

It is believed that…据信……

It must be admitted that…必须承认……

It is reported that…据报道……

It will be seen from ii that…由此可见……

It has been proved that…已证明……

It is general1y considered that…人们普遍认为……
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(3)It is+形容词十从句:

It is necessary that…有必要……

It is likely that…很可能……

It is clear that…很清楚……

It is important that…重要的是……

(4) It+不及物动词十从句:

It follows that…由此可见……

It happens that…碰巧……

It turned out that…结果是……

第二,注意英语被动句的翻译。英文的被动句经常用汉语主动句表达,如:You are requested to give a performance

英文的被动句译成汉语的主动句:请你给我们表演一个节目。英文中被动意义也可以用汉语中含有主动意义的句子来表达。常译成“被”、“由”、“受”、“为…所”等等。例如:

What is feared as failure in American society is,above all,loneliness.(在美国社会中作为失败而为人们所恐惧的,莫过于孤独了。)

第三,注意长句的翻译。首先不要被长句吓住,即使是很长的句子,也是由最基本的成分组成。分析句子的基本成分,主语、谓语、宾语、状语。抓住主干部分,然后逐次分析各词意思以及相互间的逻辑、语法关系,再进行翻译。值得注意的是关系分句的翻译。关系分句主要功能是作名词(词组)的后置修饰语(即定语),但除作名词修饰语外,关系分句还可起其他作用,比如起状语分句和并列分句的作用,因此译成汉语时要注意,限定性关系分句翻译时因为英文置于名词后,汉语则将其置于先行项(antecedent)的前边,使其译成带有“的”字的定语句子,如:I

want a wife who will work and send me to school.(我想要个既能工作又能送我上学的老婆)。有的句子过长,前置会显得累赘,或不符合汉语的习惯,这样我们翻译时将从句后置,把它翻译成跟主句平行的并列句。如:I

want a wife who will not trouble me with a wife's duties but a1ways listens

to me.(我想要个老婆,她不会以妻子的义务来打搅我,而是始终听命于我。)

非限制性关系分句和它的先行项之间有比较松散的关系。就其意义上来说,在句子中有时相当于二个并列分句,有时在语义上起状语分句的作用,翻译时可将其后置译成并列句,例如:

The sun warms the earth, which makes it possible for plants to grow.(太阳温暖了大地,这才使植物有可能生长。)也可以完全脱离主句,译成独立句。如:She

was very patient towards the children, which her husband seldom was.(她对孩子们很耐心,她丈夫却很少这样。)
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Exercises: Put the following into Chinese:

①It is reported that they have found another star.

②It happens that I have my check-book with me.

③It is likely that he will succeed.

④It is a question that we arrive before l0 o'clock.

⑤She was advised to take the medicine.

⑥she told me that a big reservoir was being built in her hometown.

⑦I'll never forget the day when l came to the University.

⑧Yesterday I saw a wonderful film, which was about World War II.

Key to the exercises:

①据报道,他们又发现了一颗星。

②碰巧我带着支票簿。

③很可能他将成功。

④我们必须十点钟前到达是个问题。

⑤她被劝告吃药。

⑥她告诉我她的家乡正在建造一个大型水库。

⑦我将永远不会忘记我来这所大学的那一天。

⑧昨晚我看了一部精彩的电影,是关于二次世界大战的。


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